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          护理英语深圳见词根词缀

          发布人:wlwu       浏览量:
           

          1.人体主要器官前缀

          名称 通用名前(后)缀 深圳用形容词 示例
          heart cardiao- cardial cardium/carditis/cardiology
          brain encepholo- cerebral cerebrum/encephalitis/encephalology
          lung pulmo- pulmonary pulmontiis/pulmonectomy/pulmonology
          liver hepato- hepatic hepatitis/hepatobiliary/hepatology
          stomach gastro- gastric gastritis/gastrointestinal/gastrology
          gallbladder chole- biliary holecystitis/cholinergic/cholecystectomy
          intestine entero- intestinal enteritis/enterectomy/enterology
          spleen splen- splenic splenitis/splenectomy/splenology
          pancreas pancreato- pancreatic pancreatitis/pancreatectomy
          kidney nephro- renal/nephric nephritis/nephropathy/nephrology

          2.与人体系统、器官有关的前(后)缀

          名称 通用名前(后)缀 示例
          blood hemo-/hemato hematology/hemoglobin/hematoma
          血管 vessel vaso- vasopressor/cardiovasology/verebrovascular
          静脉 vein veno- venography/intravenous/venoconstriction
          动脉 artery arterio- arteriology/arteriole/arteriosclerosis
          muscle myo- mycology/myositis/myocarditis
          marrow myel-/myelo- myelocyte/myelitis/myeloma
          神经 nerve neur-/neyro- neurology/neuritis/neuron
          细胞 cell cyto-/-cyte cytology/cytoma/leukocyte
          尿 urine uro-/ur- urology/urosurgery/urogenital
          body somato-/some somatology/somatopsychic/chromosome

          3.与数字有关的前缀

          数字 前缀示例
          一(单) mono-/uni- monomer/monoclone/carbon monoxide/unidirectional
          bi-/di- bilateral/biphasiccarbon dioxide/dipeptide
          tri- trilateral/triphasic/trigeminal nerve
          tetra- tetramer/tetracycline/tetraplegia
          penta- pentagon/pentachromic/pentachloride
          hexa- hexachromic/benzene hexachloride(666)/hexacycliccompiund
          hepta- heptachromic/heptaploid/heptavalent
          octa- octahedral/octal system
          nona- nonapeptide/nonagon
          deca- decade/decagram/decaliter
          注:十位数的表示一般为:个位数前缀+deca,如:hexadecanol(十六烷醇),tetradecapeptide gastrin(十四肽胃泌素),octadecanoic acid(十八烷酸)

          4.颜色及与颜色有关的前缀

          颜色 通用名前缀 示例
          color chrom-/chromo- chromosome/chromatin/chromatometer
          red erythro- erythrocyte/erythrocyturia/erythrometer
          white leuko- leukocyte/leukemia/leukocytuira
          black melano- melena/melanoma/melanoderma
          yellow xantho- xanthopsin/xanthosis/xanthoma
          blue cyan-/cyano cyanosis/cyanopsia/cyanemia
          violet/purple
          绿 green
          brown brown mixture/brown ring
          orange Victoria orange/ethyl orange/orange G
          粉红 pink oink frothy sputum
          绯红 crimson
          青铜 bronzed bronzed diabetes
          注:有些病名的”“”“为同义,其前缀都为“cyano-”.

          5.与疾病和疾患有关的前(后)缀(1)

          含义 前(后)缀形容词 示例
          patho- pathogen/pathology/pathogenesis
          /-pathy -pathic neuropathy/nephropathy/adenopathy
          病态 -osis -otic neurosis/tuberculosis/schistosomiasis
          增多 leukocytosis/erythrocytopenia/granulocytosis
          减少 -penia -penic leukocytopenia/erythrocytopenia/granulocytopenia
          a-/an- atypical/anuria/agranulocytopenia
          / -let droplet/platelet/leaflet
          micro- microscopy/microorganism/micronucleus
          / macro- macroscopic/macronucleus/macrophage
          -megaly splenomegaly/acromegaly/hepatomegaly
          复合/ poly- polyuria/polymer/polyopia
          / pan- pancolectomy/panmyelosis/pandemic

          6.与疾病和疾患有关的前(后)缀(2)  

          含义 前(后)缀示例
          相反 dis- disease/disorder/disability
          困难/障碍 dys- dysfunction/dyspepsia/dyspnea
          不良 mal- malfunction/malnutrition/malpractice
          炎症 -it is appendicitis/bronchitis/arthritis
          / -oma lymphoma/adenoma/hematoma
          血症 -emia leukemia/septisemia/bacteremia
          -algia/-algesia/alge-/algo- analgesia/hypoalgesia/algometer
          麻痹 -plegia hemipleia/pamplegia/myoplegia
          流出 -rrhea diarrhea/hypermenorrhea/rhinorrhea
          坏死 -necrosis necro-/necr- hepatonecrosis/myonecrosis/necrospermia
          结石 litho-/-lith lithiasis/lithogenesis/cholelithes

          7.与方位有关的前缀

          含义 通用词前缀 示例
          upper/superior pi-/supra- epidemic/epithelium/supracostal
          lower/inferior nfra-/sub- infracostal/subclavicular/subcutaneous
          front/anterior/prior fore-/ante- forehead/anteroposterior/precirrhosis
          /pre-
          back/posterior post-/retro- posthepatic/postprandial/retrocardiac
          inner/internal in-/endo-/ento- inhalation/endoscopy/entocranial
          outer/external ex-/exo- extract/excretion/exocardial
          between inter- intermuscular/intercostal/intercourse
          / on the side of para- parathyroid/paraprotein/pararenal
          around peri- perioperative/pericarditis/peritoneum
          中心 central centri-/centra- centrifugation/centralize/centronucleus
          /centro-
          / opposite counter-/contra- counterpart/countershock/contraindication
          注:in vivo/in’vaivou/活体内;in vitro/in vaitrou/活体外或试管内;in situ/in’saitju:/原位

          8.与外科手术有关的前(后)缀

          含义 前(后)缀示例
          切除 -ectomy appendectomy/gastrectomy/splenectomy
          切开 -tomy tracheotomy/hysterotomy/craniotomy
          切(割) -tome tracheotome/thoracotome
          吻合 -stomy duodenoenterostomy/gastroesophagostomy
          成形术 -plasty tracheoplasty/osteoplasty/myoplasty
          整(矫)形 ortho- orthopedics/orthopod/orthotherapy
          造影 -graphy angiography/nephrography/phlebography
          … trans- transdominal/translateral/transurethral
          注:ortho-也是”“的前缀,如:ortho-acid(正酸)
          -graphy
          为方法,如:electrocardigraphy 心电图检查术;graph为仪器,如:electrocardigraph心电图机;gram为图象,文字,如:electrocardiogram心电图记录。

          9.与化学品有关的前(后)缀

          含义 前(后)缀示例
          酸盐 ate sulfate/nitrate/acetate
          -ol alcohol/propanol/taxol
          -al retinal/methylal/propanal
          -one acetone/progesterone/ketone
          glyco- glycogenolysis
          saccharo- saccharomyces
          -saccharide polysaccharide
          -ase reductase/transminase/kinase
          -in penicillin/heparin/nuclein
          -gen allogen/antigen/glycogen
          苯基/ phen-/pheno- phenol/phenate/phenetidin
          氨基 amino- aminobenzene/aminopherase/aminopyrine

          10.与作用有关的前(后)缀

          含义 前(后)缀示例
          -cide/-cidal insecticide/pesticide/bactericidal
          -stasis/-static bacteriostasis/virostatic/tuberculostatic
          驱逐 -fuge febrifuge/centrifuge
          -anti antibiotic/antimycotic/antimutagen
          // de- dehydroprednisone/detergent/desensitization
          // re- reabsorb/reactivation/recombinant
          冷冻 cryo- cryobiology/cryopreservation/cryoprotectant
          //分离 dis- disinfection/dissociate/dissection
          向后/退行 retro- retrograde/retrosternal/retrocardiac